Peas all summer
Such a vegetable crop as peas can be found in almost every garden. But what do we know about her? The fact that it belongs to legumes, has the property of accumulating nitrogen on its nodules, likes to cling to its supports with its antennae ... And, perhaps, that’s all! However, this culture is not as primitive as it seems at first glance, and therefore peas should not only be grown, but also experimented with.
What is pea?
Considering peas, it is worth noting that this is an annual plant with a simple or branching stem capable of reaching a length of up to 250 cm. Some of its varieties have a bush (or standard) shape, others lie down. There is a difference in the shape of the fruit, its size, color. But the most interesting thing for us gardeners is that peas are shelling (it is also called garden) semi-sugar and sugar (or leguminous).
Shelling varieties It distinguishes the presence inside the bean, the so-called parchment layer, which makes the pods quite coarse and unsuitable for food. However, peas of this type break well, peel easily, have a smooth pea shape, are perfectly stored, and therefore grown for canning and freezing, or simply green peas.
At sugar varieties the parchment layer is absent, in the technical maturity of the pods are green in color, poorly grinded, therefore they are consumed as a whole. At the same time, the more meaty the pods are, the more sugary the peas are. The sweetest of the sugar varieties are considered dwarf, with small shoulder blades and very small peas.
Half peas also has a parchment layer, but it is weakly expressed and noticeable mainly in fully ripened beans.
In addition, it is good to know that peas are divided by the shape of seeds into round, wrinkly (brain) and transition. The third group is characterized by a compressed shape of peas with a wrinkled or smooth surface. Brain peas have the highest sucrose content - up to 9%, it is from it that canned and frozen products of the highest quality are obtained.
There are differences in early maturity and in resistance to low temperatures. If you want to get a pea crop early, you should take a closer look at the super-early smooth-grained varieties. They are so resistant to adverse conditions that they can be sown even in February. At the same time, their seedlings appear above the soil surface already at a temperature of +4 - 7 ° С and can withstand frosts up to - 6 ° С.
If there is a desire for peas to be larger and sweeter, it is necessary to choose varieties of the brain type. They come in different ripening periods and can be sown in order to harvest throughout the summer. In general, peas are divided into early, early, and varieties of the main and late harvest.
Before talking about how to achieve a pea crop for the entire summer period, it is worth recalling that this crop has its own agrotechnical methods for growing.
Preparation for landing
The first one is checking pea seeds. Because legumes are susceptible to attack by pests and are often sold damaged, they must be soaked before sowing. This simple technique allows you to not only identify unviable peas, prevents the reproduction of unfavorable “aliens” on your beds, but also stimulates the germination of seed material. At the same time, you should not wait for the appearance of roots, to plant in the soil you need only hatched healthy pea seeds, without obvious signs of the presence of pests under the skin.
Planting peas in the open ground
Second. Despite the fact that peas are not afraid of cold weather, and gardeners sow some shelled varieties even in frozen ground, it is recommended to sow sugar varieties later on - with the onset of stable warm weather, often in late April - early May (depending on the climatic zone). But you can’t wait for high temperatures, since the seedlings of this culture can not tolerate the heat and upset a fair loss.
Third. It is necessary to choose well-lit areas for planting peas. Sowing should be done on the principle of a two-line tape, leaving a distance between the tapes of about 50 cm, and between the lines - about 40 cm for sugar varieties and about 20 cm for peeling. At the same time, the seeds can be arranged in a row rather densely, at a distance of 4 cm, since peas are one of the few plants that benefit from thickening, providing greater plant resistance and some shading of the root system. The seeding depth is 3 cm on heavy soils and up to 5 cm on the lungs.
In order to extend the harvest time of peas, firstly, sowing must be done in increments of 10 days (until the end of May), secondly, pick varieties with different ripening dates, and thirdly, in the heat culture timely watering and high-quality mulching, since elevated temperatures combined with a lack of moisture deplete plants, significantly reducing the size of the pods and the quality of the crop.
There are also watering requirements.. Peas are most in need of moisture during the flowering period, so at this time it is watered at least 2 times a week, or even more often, focusing on the weather. Before flowering, watering can be infrequent, but plentiful - once every 7 days. After irrigation and heavy rains, the rows of peas must be loosened to enrich the soil with oxygen. And, of course, do not forget about top dressing - here the mullein may become the best choice.
An important role in increasing the yield is played by well-thought-out plant support. Firstly, it can be provided through thickened landings, secondly, with the help of neighboring companion cultures, and thirdly, it is provided in the form of special supports made of lattice, branches or rods. This provides peas with a natural growth rate and helps them to feel comfortable, which affects crop yields.
And, of course, one more rule. In order for your peas not to slow down in the formation of pods, it is necessary to take the crop on time. You can do this with scissors, you can gently pinch the pods with your nails, but (!) Without waiting for the pods to fully mature!
Varieties of peas by ripening
Super Peas (sown in late February - March):
- Dreams, Pioneer (sugar varieties);
- Little Marvel, Feltham First, Meteor, Kelvedon Wonder (husked smooth-grained varieties).
Early pea varieties:
- Ambrosia, Early Childhood, The Miracle of Kelvedon, Oscar (sugar varieties);
- Grasshopper, Onward, Honey cake, Hurst Green Shaft, Vera, Early Gribovsky 11 (hull cultivars).
Varieties of peas main crop:
- Zhegalova - 112, Sugar 2, Inexhaustible 195, Oregon, Sugar Oregon (sugar varieties);
- Alderman Senador, Mustachioed 5, Hawsky pearls, Moscow delicacy, Winner G-33, Fragment (husk varieties).
Late pea varieties (until the first harvest is about 90 days, sown very early):
- Phone, Troika (husking varieties).
Small seed peas:
- Waverex (sugar grade).